IIHS tests headlights

Headlights Dim? It’s Not You, It’s Your Car

If you feel you can’t see as well while driving at night, it may not be your vision but your car’s headlights. For the first time, along with their normal crash tests, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS), tested headlights on the new 2016 model cars. The results were not good.

When driving in the dark, if you encounter a hazard on the road, you need to be able to stop within the area illuminated by your headlights. If you’re traveling at 50 mph, that means your headlights need to illuminate more than 175 feet ahead of you if you’re going to be able to stop in time to avoid a crash with the hazard ahead. At 60 mph, you’ll need light up at least 260 feet ahead. If your headlights only illuminate 100 feet ahead, you’ll need to slow down to less than 40 mph in order to avoid a crash with an unseen object ahead.

To test the headlights, the IIHS conducted tests on their test track using a special device to measure the lights on both low and high beams. The tests were conducted under five different approach scenarios: traveling straight, a sharp left curve, a sharp right curve, a gradual left curve and a gradual right curve. The device also measured the glare of the low beam headlights to make sure they didn’t blind oncoming drivers.

The headlights were tested as they were delivered from the vehicle manufacturer and were not adjusted in any way.

Headlights were measured against an ideal beam and points were subtracted to determine the rating. More weight was given to low beam headlights because they’re used most often. More weight was also given to measurements on straightaways because more collisions happen on straight roads than on curved.

The IIHS rated every combination of headlights as they come from the dealer so, although there were only 31 vehicles, there were a total of 82 headlight ratings. As it does with all of its tests, the IIHS assigned four ratings: good, acceptable, marginal and poor.

Only one vehicle received a “good” rating, the Toyota Prius V when equipped with LED lights and high-beam assist. Eleven vehicles received acceptable ratings, nine received marginal ratings, and ten were given a poor rating.

Among the poor ratings, the BMW 3 series were deemed the worse. When driving in the dark, BMW 3 drivers can’t travel any faster than 35 mph if they want to stop within the area illuminated by the headlights.

For more information, visit: First-ever IIHS headlight ratings show most need improvement

Collapsing front seats pose danger to children in back seats

Collapsing Front Seats Pose Danger To Children In Back Seat

A recent FairWarning.org article points out that collapsing front seats can pose a serious danger to children in the back seat. While the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) knows about the issue, they say there’s too little data to initiate any sort of mandate from the federal government to fix the problem.

The problem comes when cars are struck from behind. As the car is suddenly pushed forward, the front seats can collapse and fall backwards. If that should happen, children riding in the back seat can be severely injured when they are struck by the front seat headrest, the seat itself, or by the occupant of the front seat. According to the article, some seats have been known to collapse in a 30 mph crash.

The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) tests seats as part of their crash test regimen for new cars and, in fact, they remove the seats and test them on a sled separately from the car itself. However, the tests concentrate more on how much support the front seat and headrest will provide for its occupant to prevent whiplash and back injuries and not so much on the ability of the seat to remain upright in a higher impact crash.

Parents who are looking for a new car can check the IIHS crash ratings for a particular model and it will show how well the seats performed in rear end crash tests but it’s important to remember that those tests are conducted to simulate a 20 mph crash and that may not indicate how well the seat will perform in a higher speed impact. You can see an example of the seat test here.

For years, NHTSA has advised that because of the dangers posed by airbags to small children, children should be seated in the back seat. According to FairWarning, that advice doesn’t go far enough. They advise that children be placed in the back seat behind an unoccupied front seat or behind the seat with the occupant that weighs less (as in the photo above).

This video shows what can happen in a crash where the front seat collapses and falls back:

For more information, visit: Regulators, Automakers Urged to Warn Parents About Flawed Seats

Emotions and distractions cause traffic crashes

Strong Emotions Increase Crash Rate Tenfold

In 2006, the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI) along with the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) conducted a natural driving behavior study by outfitting 100 cars with sensors and cameras that observed both the driver and events outside the vehicle.  Recently, VTTI added to that original study by conducting the largest study of its kind. In the latest study, VTTI followed more than 3,500 participants across six points in the US. The results showed that driver emotions are just as, if not more dangerous than driver distractions.

In the first study, the subject vehicles logged nearly two million miles and were involved in 761 near crashes and 82 actual crashes. The results showed that almost 80 percent of motor vehicle crashes and 65% of near crashes involve driver inattention within three seconds before the event.

In the second study, VTTI again outfitted driver’s personal vehicles with unobtrusive instrumentation, including a suite of cameras, sensors, and radar. The instruments continuously recorded real-world driver performance and behavior, from the time the drivers turned on the ignition to the time they turned the engine off. The drivers participated between one and two years each and accumulated more than 35 million miles of observable data.

Unlike the first study that looked at events and driver behaviors that led to both near and actual crashes, the second study only collected data on 1,600 actual crashes ranging in severity from low, such as striking the curb, to severe, police-reportable crashes.

Driving experts have known for years that driver emotions and attitude have the greatest impact on driving safety. This study was able to see that relationship in greater detail. According to the researchers, “drivers increase their crash risk nearly tenfold when they get behind the wheel while observably angry, sad, crying, or emotionally agitated.”

Where distracted driving is concerned, the researchers found that:

  • Drivers engage in some type of distracting activity more than 50 percent of the time they are driving.
  • Crash rates are doubled when drivers engage in distracting activities that require them to take their eyes off the road, such as using a handheld cell phone, reading or writing, or using touchscreen menus on a vehicle instrument panel.

It all comes down to basics; drive the car instead of letting your emotions drive you and avoid distracting behaviors at all costs.

To learn more read: Researchers determine driver risks using large-scale, crash-only naturalistic database

Hoverboards

The Dangers Of Hoverboards

A week or so ago, as I was driving through my neighborhood, I came up on three kids riding hoverboards in the oncoming lane. The two boys and a girl, who looked to be around 13 years old, were moving along at a pretty good clip. The girl never took her eyes off of her cell phone while she was in my view. I thought, “here’s a crash waiting to happen.”

Hoverboards were the big gift item of the 2015 Christmas season and apparently sold like hotcakes. Just before Christmas, news reports started appearing showing hoverboard batteries that had caught fire and exploded; destroying at least one home in Louisiana. The fires are happening so often that a lot of college campuses banned hoverboards in their dorms.

While the fires are a legitimate cause for concern, a problem we aren’t hearing a lot about is the potential for serious injury among hoverboard users, especially if they take them on the road.

A statement published this week by the chairman of the Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC) addressed both the problems of the battery fires and the potential for serious injury by hoverboard users.

At least two teens – one in England and one in Dubai – died when they were thrown from their hoverboards into oncoming traffic. While the CPSC has started collecting data on hoverboard injuries and emergency room (ER) visits, it’s still too early to see if any trends are developing. The only similar activity is skateboarding which leads to an average of 111,000 ER visits by kids under the age of 18 each year. While many of those visits involve sprains, scrapes, and bruises, a significant number also involve traumatic brain injury. In 2014, 28 people were killed in skateboarding related crashes.

One major difference between skateboards and hoverboards is that, unlike skateboards, hoverboards can accelerate on their own depending on the weight and body positioning of the user. New users will have a steep learning curve before they can have total control over the boards.

After a teen in England was killed using a hoverboard, police were quick to remind people that, in the minds of the law, hoverboards are basically Segways without handles and the use of Segways on public property of any kind is illegal. In the US, the technology is so new that most states don’t have laws to cover them yet.

In Florida, if hoverboards are considered to be the same as a Segway without handlebars, they would fall under the law regarding “electric personal assistive mobility devices (EPADs)” and  are allowed:

(a) On a road or street where the posted speed limit is 25 miles per hour or less.

(b) On a marked bicycle path.

(c) On any street or road where bicycles are permitted.

(d) At an intersection, to cross a road or street even if the road or street has a posted speed limit of more than 25 miles per hour.

However, if the hoverboard user is under the age of 16, they must wear a bicycle helmet that meets the standards of:

  • the American National Standards Institute (ANSI Z Bicycle Helmet Standards);
  • the standards of the Snell Memorial Foundation (1984 Standard for Protective Headgear for Use in Bicycling);
  • or any other nationally recognized standards for bicycle helmets which are adopted by the department.

Counties, cities and towns can make regulations regarding EPADs and the Department of Transportation can ban their use on roads where they might otherwise be used if it’s felt that the regulations or bans are in the interest of safety.

Children who use hoverboards should:

  • Always wear protective equipment such as helmets and knee and elbow pads.
  • Always be supervised when riding.
  • Restrict their riding to sidewalks and stay out of traffic.

Owners of hoverboards should:

  • Never leave the hoverboard to charge overnight without supervision. The charging process increases the risk of a fire.
  • Keep a fire extinguisher near the hoverboard charging station.

For additional hoverboard safety recommendations, visit: Statement from the U.S. CPSC Chairman Elliot F. Kaye on the Safety of Hoverboards

Stop for Pedestrians St Aug

Ask The Traffic School Instructor: Do Pedestrians Always Have The Right-Of-Way?

Question: I was attending a work related safety training session and the instructor said that, in Florida, pedestrians don’t have the right of way. Is that true?

Answer: For the most part, no, it isn’t true but it depends on the circumstances.

First off, we have to look at the term “right-of-way.” There’s a lot of confusion about that term and people tend to think in terms of who has the right-of-way in a given situation when, in fact, no one has the right-of-way. The law doesn’t give anyone the right-of-way; it only says who should give up or yield the right-of-way to another. You can’t take the right-of-way, you can only give it to someone else and the law lists the circumstances in which a driver should give up the right-of-way to another.

Let’s look first at what the law requires of pedestrians:
  • On roadways where there’s a sidewalk, pedestrians must stay off the paved portion of the roadway reserved for vehicles.
  • If there’s no sidewalk, pedestrians are required to walk on the shoulder on the left side of the road facing oncoming traffic.
  • Pedestrians are only allowed to cross the roadway at a marked crosswalk or at an unmarked crosswalk at an intersection. (Even if it’s not marked, the area next to an intersection is considered to be a crosswalk.)
  • Pedestrians are required to obey all traffic signals and signs just like drivers.
  • Even if they’re crossing at a marked or unmarked crosswalk, pedestrians are required to give up the right-of-way if a vehicle is approaching so closely that it wouldn’t be possible for it to safely stop in time.
Now let’s look at those times when drivers are required to give up the right-of-way to pedestrians:
  • Drivers are required to yield the right-of-way by slowing or stopping, if necessary, when a pedestrian is crossing the street in a marked or unmarked crosswalk.
  • If a pedestrian is crossing the street at a crosswalk and is on the driver’s side of the road or will be on the driver’s side of the road by the time the driver gets there, the driver is required to slow and stop, if necessary, for the pedestrian to pass.
  • On a multi-lane roadway, if a driver ahead has stopped for a pedestrian in the crosswalk, drivers approaching in the other lanes must also stop until the pedestrian has safely crossed.
  • When a driver is entering the roadway from a parking lot, driveway, or alley, the driver must yield to pedestrians on the sidewalk before proceeding.
  • When turning a corner, drivers must yield to pedestrians who are already in the crosswalk.
Special circumstances:

If a blind or visually impaired pedestrian, using a white cane or guided by a guide dog, is attempting to cross the street, whether at a crosswalk or not, all traffic in both directions must come to a complete stop.

Watch for children:

Watch out for children, especially near schools, parks, and residential zones. Kids are in their own little world and they don’t care what the law says.

Vulnerable road users

A new law went into effect in Florida a couple of years ago that lists those who are regarded as vulnerable road users. Vulnerable road users include:

  • Pedestrians, including those working on the roadway
  • Users of bicycles, mopeds, or scooters
  • Skaters and skateboarders
  • Horse drawn carriages
  • Motorcyclists
  • Someone riding an animal
  • Users of electric mobility assistance devices
  • Users of wheelchairs
  • Tractors or other vehicles designed for farm use

The new law requires motorists who are involved in a crash with a vulnerable road user to stop and render aid. Those who fail to do so will face severe penalties.

The lists above don’t include every instance covered under the law, just the basic ones. To see what Florida law says about pedestrians, read: The 2015 Florida Statutes – 316.130 Pedestrians; traffic regulations.—